Classical Era


© The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Alexander the Great
1. © Musèe du Louvre, Paris
2. © Information Technology Services, University of Texas at Austin

© The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Ancient Fishing Crafts
© The Museum of the Frankincense Land

Andaman Islands
© Christoph Hormann, Imagico

Angkor Borei and Oc Eo
Courtesy of University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, Department of Anthropology

1. Courtesy of The Hindu, Online Edition, Chennai, India
2. © Musèe Guimet, Paris

Arya Sura's Jatakamala Stories
Courtesy of the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA), New Delhi

Courtesy Columbia University

Ban Don Ta Phet Cemetery
1. © Ian Glover, Courtesy of the Bead Study Trust
2. Courtesy of Thailand in the 80’s, Office of the Prime Minister, Royal Thai Government

1. © Harold Bakker, University of Professional Education, Utrecht, the Netherlands

Public domain

Bay of Bengal
1. © Christoph Hormann, Imagico
2. Courtesy of the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India

Courtesy of Cardiff University, UK

Camel Saddle
1. Painting by Louis Linant de Bellefonds from Léon de Laborde’s Voyage en Arabie Petrée, 1830.
2-3. © The Trustees of the British Museum
4. © DK Images, London

Camels and Date Production
1-2. © DK Images, London

Canal from the Nile to the Red Sea
1. Courtesy of Benoît Heimermann, Suez and Panama pharoahcanal.jpg
2. Courtesy of NASA, Washington, DC

Chhien Han Shu

Cinnamon and Cassia
1-2. Courtesy of UCLA Biomedical Library, Los Angeles

Cinnamon in the Histories of Herodotus
Courtesy Saudi Aramco World

1. Public Domain

Coin with Ship Symbol
Courtesy of Pranab K. Chattopadhyay, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh

Dongson Drum
© The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Egyptian Faience Bowl
© The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Frankincense and Myrrh
1. © The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
2. Courtesy of Wilde Ones, London, UK

1. Photographer: Harry Hänni, SSEF, courtesy of Richard Hughes, Ruby & Sapphire
2. Public Domain

Courtesy of the Mariners’ Museum, Newport News, Virginia

Hindu Scripture: Vishnu and the Universal Ocean
1. Public domain
2. Courtesy of Willard Van De Bogart

From The Histories of Herodotus by Herodutus

Indigo Dye
1. © Susan Wittig Albert
2. Courtesy of Kirsty Komuso
3. Courtesy of Paladian


Isodorus of Charax
© The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Isthmus of Kra
Courtesy of Andrew Sheratt

Jar Burials
1. © The Origins of Angkor Archaeological Project, Phillipines
2. Courtesy of the Embassy of the Republic of the Phillippines, Dhaka
3. © EACOMM Corporation, Artes de las Filipinas

Kamal Navigation Tool
1. Courtesy of Peter Afland
2. Public domain

1-2. Courtesy of SG Prabhu

Kushan Gold Coin
Courtesy of Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.

Lost City of Ubar
1. Courtesy of NASA, Washington, DC
2. Public domain, sketched after 1990 excavations

Mangrove Poles, Tortoise Shells, Ivory, and Rhinoceros Horn
1. Photographs by Fred Hoogervorst, Originally printed in Swara magazine, Jan./ Feb. 1996
2. Photograph by Rowland Ward, Kenya, 1928, Courtesy of the Rhino Resource Center

1. Courtesy of the Energy Farms Network
2. © Tecstra Systems,

Public domain

Natural History
From Natural History by Pliny the Elder

Navigation by Polaris
1. Courtesy of John Elder
2. © Ontario Science Center, Canada

Nearchus, Captain of Alexander the Great's Navy
1. Courtesy of Jona Lendering, Livius, Articles on Ancient History
2. © Archaeological Museum, Thessaloniki, Greece

Obelisk of Shalmaneser III
© The Trustees of the British Museum

© The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

© The Trustees of the British Museum

Courtesy of University of Leicester, Archaeology Dept., UK

Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
From A Walk Through Time: Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Courtesy UAE Interact, National Media Council

Pharaoh Necho II
© Allard Piersonmuseum, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

1. © Beirut National Museum, Beirut
2. © Musèe du Louvre, Paris

Phoenician Ship
© Beirut National Museum, Beirut

Punch-Marked Coins
1. Courtesy of Subranmaniam Iyer
2. Courtesy of Emran Hossain, “Wari-Bateshwar one of earliest kingdoms”, The Daily Star, March 19, 2008

Roman Coins in India
1. © The Trustees of the British Museum
2. © The Trustees of the British Museum

Rouletted Ware & Roman Pottery
Public domain

Sabean Bronze Bull
© The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Sabaeans of Southern Arabia
© Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC

Scylax of Caryanda
© Archaeological Museum, Tehran

1. © The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
2. Courtesy of the Silkworm Shop, San Diego, CA

Sri Lanka
© The Serendib Gallery, Sri Lanka

Strabo the Geographer
1. Public domain
2. Unknown author. Image courtesy of Henry Davis Consulting, Ash Fork, AZ

Sugar Cane
Public domain

Taklamakan Desert
1. Courtesy of Joseph Adler, Kenyon College, Gambier, OH
2. Courtesy of Joseph Adler, Kenyon College, Gambier, OH

Vyadhapura, Capital of Funan
1-2. Courtesy of Dr. Miriam Stark, and the Lower Mekong Archaeological Project, Department of Antropology,
University of Hawaii, 1999

Zhang Qian

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