First Global Era


Aden, Yemen
1-2. Braun and Hogenberg, Civitates Orbis Terrarum, 1572

Admiral Sidi Reis
1. © HowStuffWorks, Inc.

Ahmad Ibn Majid
1. Courtesy of Saudi Aramco World, Houston, TX
2. Courtesy of UAE Interact, supported by the National Media Council

Aztec Pouring Chocolate
1. © Museo de América, Madrid, Spain
2. Public domain

Bartholomeu Dias
1. © Bartolomeu Dias Museum Complex, Mossel Bay, South Africa
2. © Medios Digitales de COPESA, Icarito Encyclopedia

Bengal and Coromandel Cloth
1. ©The British Library Board, London
2. © V&A Images courtesy of The Science Museum and Peter Symonds College

Blue-White Porcelain Teaset from China
1. © Fairfax Country Park Authority Collections, VA
2. © The British Library Board, London

British East India Company Coat of Arms
1. © The British Library Board, London
2. Public domain

Bugis Traders and Mariners
1. © Michael Kasten
2. Public domain

Calcutta (Kolkata)
1. Braun and Hogenberg, Civitates Orbis Terrarum, 1572
2. Public Domain

Cannon - Bearing Ships
1. © National Maritime Museum, London
2. © Portsmouth Historic Dockyard, UK

© The Trustees of the British Museum

Cape of Good Hope
1. Courtesy of Robert Edward Lewand, Goucher College, Baltimore, MD
2. Public domain

Captain James Cook
1. Courtesy of CIA World Factbook and Demis Map Server
2. Courtesy of John Platek

Captain William Kidd
Courtesy of (cannon)

Henry C. Murphy. The Voyage of Verrazzano: A Chapter in the Early History of Maritime Discovery in America. New
York, 1875. Courtesy of the Atlas of Canada.

Carrack, or Nau
Courtesy of the Mariners’ Museum, Newport News, Virginia

Carreira da India
Courtesy of Fernando Gil

Courtesy of Cambridge University Library (Bry, India Orientalis, IV, 1601)

The Chronometer
© National Maritime Museum, London

Citrus Juice and Scurvy
1. © Tom Bown
2. © Otto Carl Berg & Carl Friedrich Schmidt , Darstellung und Beschreibung sämtlicher in der Pharmacopoea
Borusica aufgeführten offizinellen Gewächse, 1793

1. Public Domain
2. © Phillip Walker, Jewish East End of London

© The Trustees of the British Museum

Convict Colony at Botany Bay
1. © William Bradley, 'A Voyage to New South Wales', December 1786 - May 1792. Courtesy of State Library of
New South Wales, Australia
2. © Public Record Office of Northern Ireland (PRONI)

© The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Decades of Asia by Joao de Barros
1. Photo courtesy of AJ, Portugal. Sculpture in Parque Aquilino Ribiero, Portugal

Dirk Hartog's Pewter Plate
1. © Rijksmuseum, Netherlands
2. © State Library of New South Wales, courtesy of the Heritage Collection Nelson Meers Foundation

Courtesy of Frances Pritchett, Columbia University

Dodo Bird
© The Natural History Museum, London

Dungarees (Jeans)
Courtesy of the State Library of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia

© The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Estuaries on the Indian Coast
Courtesy of National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India

Ferdinand Magellan in Spain
1. © International Book Sales, Inc. Dover, NH
2. Courtesy of NASA

Floral Cotton Chintz
© The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Braun and Hogenberg, Civitates Orbis Terrarum, 1572

Gold, Girona Shipwreck
1-2. © Ulster Museum Folk and Transport Museum, UK
3. Courtesy of Culture24

Gold, Ivory, and Copper
1. Courtesy of Glendale Community College Earth Science Image Archive, Arizona
2. Courtesy of Dr. James R. Lee American University
3. Courtesy of Frances Pritchett, Columbia University

Gujarati Traders
1. Courtesy of PLANEMAD/Wikipedia
2. © National Gallery of Australia

Hugo Grotius, Mare Liberum (Freedom of the Seas) 1609
1. Courtesy of Trevor Murphy and Greg Klein, Oregon State University

Inter Caetera of 1493
Courtesy of Corridoio Vasariano Museum, Florence, Italy

© The Trustees of the British Museum

Jan Pieterszoon Coen, Governor General, VOC
1. Courtesy of De VOC Site
2. Batavia, circa 1600, by John Ogilvy. Image courtesy of Brian Hooker, “In the name of the son”, Mercator’s
World, July/August, 1998, 3(4)

1. Braun and Hogenberg, Civitates Orbis Terrarum, 1572
2. Courtesy of Torrence Royer

Kunyu Quantu and Kangnido Chinese Maps
1. Country Names added by PHG
2. ©The British Library Board, London

Letter from Jahangir to James I of England
1. Courtesy of Frances Pritchett, Columbia University
2. © Smithsonian Institute, Freer Sackler Gallery of Art

Macau, China
1. Public domain
2. Courtesy of the Red Hat of Pat Ferrick

Carl L. Johannessen and Anne Z. Parker, "Maize Ears Sculptured in 12th and 13th Century A.D. India as Indicators of
Pre-Columbian Diffusion," Economic Botany 43, 1989, 164-80

Malay Account of Portuguese in Malacca
Courtesy National Museum of Ancient Art, Lisbon, Portugal

The Manila Galleon
© The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The Mappilas
1. Courtesy of
2. Courtesy of Kadavu Resort, Kerala, India

1. Courtesy of Anindita Sengupta
2. © The Orvis Co., Inc.

1-2. Courtesy of International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)
3. Courtesy of Pacific Ocean Marine Services, Yemen

The Mughal Empire and the Red Fort at Aghra
1. © The British Library Board
2. Public domain

Mughal Turkey Painting
1. © Bridgeman Art Library, London

Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
1. Courtesy of Frederick A. Stokes Company
2. From Livro das Plantas das Fortalezas, Cidades e Povoaçoes do Estado da India Oriental. 1600s. Courtesy of
Marco Ramerini
3. Courtey of Carston Behme

1. Courtesy of the British Journal of Pharmacology
2. Public domain

The Ottoman Empire
1. Courtesy of Maziar Behrooz, San Franciso State University, CA
2. Courtesy of Ian Lloyd

The Ottoman Navy
1. Flagship of Kemal Reis, Public domain
2. Courtesy of Yehya Kemal Beyath

Painting of the Battle of Plassey, 1754
© National Portrait Gallery, London

1-2. Courtesy of the J. Richard Steffy Ship Reconstruction Laboratory, Texas A&M

Persian Carpets
1. Courtesy of Berndt Fernow
2. © The National Gallery, Trafalgar Square, London
3. © Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

Piggybank from Java, Indonesian
1. Courtesy Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
2. Courtesy Asian Art Resource, London, U.K.
3. © PiggyBankPage at

From Oviedo, La historia general de las Indias, 1535, courtesy of the Library of Congress, Washington, DC

Department of Tourism, Pondicherry, India

Portrait of EIC Official by Dip Chand, ca. 1760
© Victoria and Albert Museum, London, UK

The Roaring Forties
1. © National Maritime Museum, London
2. © Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut(KNMI), the Netherlands

Royal Decree from Shah Abbas to the English
1. © Bayani, Khanbaba. "Gushah'i az tarikh-i diplumasi-yi Iran." Barrasi-ha-yi tarikhi 1, 5-6 (1345/1967): 33-60.
Courtesy of Philipps University, Marburg,
2. Courtesy of Marco Ramerini 

The Safavid Empire
1. © Museu Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon, Portugal
2. © The Trustees of the British Museum

The Sextant
© National Maritime Museum, London

© The Trustees of the British Museum

The Spice Trade: Nutmeg and Mace
© Shipwreck and Coastal Heritage Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Straits of Malacca
Courtesy of Cambridge University, UK

Surat, Gujarat
1. © The British Library Board
2. Courtesy of Frances Pritchett, Columbia University
3. Courtesy of the Gemological Institute of America

Tea Chest
1. Courtesy of Joseph O’Kelly and Antigone Clarke, Antique Boxes
2. © Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) Museum, Washington, DC

Trade Winds and Horse Latitudes
1. Courtesy of Matt T. Rosenberg
2 and 3. © NASA, Washington, DC

The Treaty of Tordesillas
Courtesy of UNESCO World Heritage Centre

United Dutch East India Company, VOC
1. Courtesy of Paulus Swaen
2. © The Trustees of the British Museum
3. © JAN Fine Arts, London

1. © David Rumsey
2. © Friend and Burrell

Vasco da Gama
1. Courtesy of World Book, Inc.
2. © National Maritime Museum, London

© Old Dartmouth Historical Society / New Bedford Whaling Museum, MA

The Wind Rose
1-2. Courtesy of the University of Southern Maine, Portland ME

World Maps, 1459-1724
1-2. Image courtesy of Henry Davis Consulting, Ash Fork, AZ
2. Originally from Oud en Nieuw Oost-Indien (Dordrecht/Amsterdam) 1724/26. Courtesy of Paulus Swaen

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